Ghumusari is a breed that is local to Bhanjanagar (Ghumusari) sub-division of Ganjam and adjoining areas of Phulbani district of Orissa. Ghumusari breed has derived its name from the place of its origin, the Ghumusur region.

It’s breeding tracts include the western parts of Ganjam district, with heavy concentration in the Bhanjanagar, Sorada and Aksa areas. Like the Binjharpuri and Khariar cattle of Orissa, the Ghumusari is also known by the name ‘Deshi’.

This breed is mainly a draught cattle breed, though sometimes these are also maintained for milk, manure and fuel.

These cattle are fast declining in numbers, mainly due to non-availability of quality bulls in the native tract. Efforts are being made to stop this decline, and conserve the breed. 

The present population of Ghumusari is less than 10,000 in its native tract and is decreasing at a faster rate. Conservation and improvement activities have already been taken up by the Orissa Government in its native tracts with the involvement of the local farming community.


  • This is a small-sized, strong breed with a coat colour which is mostly white, though at times the coat colour has shades of silver grey.
  • The head is small and flat with broad forehead, depressed between the eyes.
  • The hump is medium sized but well-developed and limbs are medium in size.
  • Tail is thin with black switch; hooves are well-proportioned, black and round.
  • The horns are short to medium-sized, curved outward, upward and inward, though some of the cattle have straight horns also.
  • The ears are medium-sized and tubular.
  • The navel flap is small, and also the penis sheath flap is small.
  • The dewlap is thin, medium-sized in males and small-sized in females.
  • The udder is small with less prominent medium milk veins.
  • The teats are small in size, cylindrical in shape and with round teat tip.
  • Height of the male averages at 108 cms., and that of the female at 103 cms.
  • Body length of the male averages at 116 cms., and of the female at 107 cms.
  • Body weight of the male averages at 208 kgs., and that of the female at 168 kgs.
  • Average chest girth of a male is 136 cms and that of the female is 126 cms.
  • The milk yield per lactation ranges from 450 kgs to 650 kgs.
  • Average milk fat ranges from 4.8% – 5 %.
  • Average age at first calving is around 42 months.
  • The lactation period is around 270 to 290 days.
  • Calving interval of this breed is around 13 months.

Selective breeding can bring about sustained development in the productivity of ‘Desi’ cattle. Orchestrated efforts by the locals as well as by the various State Governments will definitely see a rise in numbers of our sturdy, disease-resistant Indian breeds of cattle.

The cows are generally docile by nature. Since the breed is chiefly a draught cattle breed, very few animals are maintained for milk, manure and fuel. The lactating cows and bullocks are fed with straw, rice bran and kitchen waste.

The Ghumusari cattle are maintained in the semi-intensive management system, and are rarely fed any concentrate. These cattle are heat tolerant, and have a very low incidence of diseases. These can sustain on very low-quality feed intake.

Surabhivana continues in its efforts towards sustained development of our Indian breeds of cattle.

Indian Cow Facts

These cattle have an ability to plough about 400 sq. mtrs. of land. A pair of bullocks can work eight hours a day, pulling a cart load of about 800 to 1200 kgs.

These bullocks are considered superior to the other breeds found in this region.