Gangatiri is a native Indian breed, found around river Ganga in the eastern parts of Uttar Pradesh, in the Chandauli, Ghazipur and Ballia districts. This breed is also found in adjacent areas of Bhabua, Buxar, Arrah and Chhapra in the state of Bihar. Gangatiri is also known as Eastern Hariana or Shahabadi. Its breeding tracts include Varanasi, Mirzapur, Ballia and Ghazipur districts of Uttar Pradesh, and Bhojpur, Rohtas and Shahbad districts of Bihar.
Gagantiri cattle are generally kept in the open or in thatched housing near the farmers’ houses. They are grazed for almost six to eight hours per day. They are generally kept in herd sizes varying from 2 to 150 numbers. Large herds are maintained purely on grazing, in the ‘diyara’ – the area adjacent to the river Ganga. The current population of this breed is estimated to be around 3 to 4 lakhs, of which almost 67000 are found in the breeding tracts.
- These animals have moderate bodies with coat colours that are either complete white (Dhawar) or Grey (Sokan).
- The horns are medium sized and emerge from side of the poll behind and above eyes in outward and curving upwards and inwards ending with pointed tips.
- The face is narrow with short ears; the forehead is prominent, straight and broad with a shallow groove in the middle.
- The eyelids, muzzle, hooves and tail switch are generally black in colour.
- The average weight of a male is 340 kgs, and of a female is 235 kgs.
- The height at withers of a male is 142 cm, and of a female is 124 cm.
- Average body length of a male is 121 cm and of a female is 110 cm.
- Average chest girth of a male is 168 cm while that of a female is 153 cm.
- The age at first calving is around 48 months, varying between 27 – 82 months while the inter-calving period is 14 – 24 months with a gestation period of 290.
- The lactation length is 150 – 250 days and the average milk yield in a lactation is around 1050 Kg, varying from 900 to 1200 Kg.
- These cattle are well adapted to low to medium input production system and produce about 2.5 to 8.0 Kg milk a day with an average fat percentage ranging from 4.1 to 5.2 %.
The Gangatiri is an important dual-purpose breed, which is used for milk production as well as for agricultural operations. This is a robust and resilient breed which contributes significantly towards the livelihood of people of the region.
Of the 40 registered native cattle breeds of India, Gangatiri is one of the most recently recognised one. [A chart of the registered native cattle breeds of India, as declared by the NDDB, is presented at the end of this article.]
‘Gangatiri’ is an important breed and was almost on the verge of extinction when the present Government took over its promotion and conservation through Uttar Pradesh Livestock Development Board. The proposed Gangatiri Cows’ Conservation and Development Centre is already under way at Araji Line, Shahnshahpur, in Varanasi. The new scheme ‘National Gokul Mission’ that has been launched for the development and protection of indigenous breeds shall help conserve this breed in a large way.
Our Surabhivana Gaushala continues to support this national movement for the promotion and conservation of our ‘desi’ cattle.
Indian Cow Breeds
|SL. No||Breed||Home Tract||ACCESSION NO. India Cattle|
|4||Dangi||Maharashtra, M. P||1104_DANGI_03004|
|6||Gaolao||Maharashtra, M. P||1110_GAOLAO_03006|
|9||Hariana||Haryana, Uttar Pradesh,||0520_HARIANA_03009|
|12||Kenkatha||Gujarat and Rajasthan||2010_KENKATHA_03012|
|13||Kherigarh||Uttar Pradesh, M. P||2000_KHERIGARH_03013|
|15||Krishna Valley||Maharashtra, Karnataka||0800_KRISHNAVALLEY_030|
|18||Nagori||Rajasthan, Haryana, U. P||1700_NAGORI_03018|
|26||Sahiwal||Punjab and Rajasthan||1617_SAHIWAL_03026|
|27||Siri||Sikkim and West Bengal||2221_SIRI_03027|
|31||Motu||Orissa, Chhattisgarh, A. P||1526_MOTU _03031|
|38||Belahi||Haryana, Chandigarh||0532_BELAHI _03038|
|39||Gangatiri||U. P, Bihar, Uttarakhand||2003_GANGATIRI_03039|