Binjharpuri is a dual-purpose breed, indigenous to the Binjharpur area in the Jajpur district of Orissa. This breed is also known as “Deshi”. These cattle are mainly found in the Binjharpur, Bari, Sujanpur and Dasarathpur area of Jajpur District. They are also found in the adjoining Kendrapara and Bhadrak districts of Orissa where the region is mainly coastal plain and some saline zones.
The Binjharpuri cattle are maintained for milk and manure, and also for draught purposes. These cattle are heat and drought tolerant. They are excellent draught animals, and are very active in agricultural operations. Maximum number of small and also landless farmers in Orissa maintain these cattle on account of their unique utility value. These cattle are housed in sheds made of thatched roof with ‘kutcha’ floor. The walls of the shed are made of bamboo sticks, palm or coconut leaves, thus making the sheds well ventilated.
As is the case with the other native Indian cattle breeds, the Binjharpuri population is also steadily dwindling. The Binjharpuri Breed Promoters’ Society has been formed for the conservation of this breed. Measures to boost its milk production is also underway. Lately, the State Government has started a project for conserving this native breed under the Odisha Bovine Breeding Policy, 2015.
- This is a medium-sized, compact and strong breed with a good posture.
- Cows are proportionate and graceful while the bulls are vigorous and majestic.
- These cattle are found in white, grey, black and brown colours, with white markings on forehead, limbs and tail.
- Eyelids, neck, muzzle and hooves are black in colour. Irrespective of colour of coat, the hump, neck and certain areas of face and back, are black in males.
- Calves with light brown or grey colour develop to white colour at adult age.
- Head is upright and medium in size.
- Face is narrow with straight forehead and tight skin.
- Ears are short and horizontal.
- Horns are medium in size, and curved upward and inward.
- Muzzle, eyelids, tail switch, and hooves are black in colour .
- Tail is long, almost touching the ground, tapering towards the tip, and has a voluminous switch.
- The bulls have well-developed hump, penis, navel flap and dewlap.
- The hump is large in males and small in females, and so also the dewlap.
- The pin bones (posterior bones) are distinct and wide apart.
- The udder is bowl-shaped and medium in size, with cylindrical shaped teat.
- The milk vein is prominent but medium in appearance.
- Height of the male averages at 124 cms., and that of the female at 107 cms.
- Body length of the male averages at 126 cms., and of the female at 115 cms.
- Body weight of the male averages at 255 kgs., and that of the female at 207 kgs.
- Average chest girth of a male is 144 cms and that of the female is 136 cms.
- The milk yield per lactation ranges from 915 kgs to -1350 kgs.
- The milk fat ranges from 4.3% – 4.4%.
- Average age at first calving is 3 to 3.5 years.
- Calving interval of this breed is 1 to 1.25 years.
The study on “Survey, evaluation and characterization of the Binjharpuri breed, made by Orissa Livestock Resources Development Society(OLRDS), strongly advocates for improvement of this breed through selective breeding for the benefit of the farmers. This effort happens to be the first of its kind in the country towards practical conservation and improvement of newly registered native cattle germ-plasm.
Our Surabhivana marches ahead in its endeavour to conserve our native Indian breeds of cattle.